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SOX lamp offers an increased maintenance interval and fewer early spot-failures, for only a small increase in price.

The fundamental difference between SOX and SOX-Plus at the time was an improved electrode assembly.  A significant proportion of early failures could be traced to electrolysis of the pinch seal, and cracking of the glass-to-metal seals.  This region had been a weak point in all previous lamps, since there is no sodium-resistant glass coating at the point where the lead wires enter the discharge tube - it is only present over the outer sides of the glass-sleeved lead wires, and not at the extremities where the wires emerge.  Consequently a small tube of magnesium oxide was embedded into the glass here in an attempt to keep sodium away from the seals - but it was only partially successful.

The improved design on SOX-Plus was originally introduced for SOX-E lamps, and consists of a single piece sodium-resistant glass sleeve over a lead wire of iron-nickel-cobalt alloy.  Since the glass sleeve is completely resistant to sodium, no ceramic bead is necessary and the occurrence of seal leaks is dramatically reduced.  No other change was made to the lamp other than to equip it with a new red colored cap.

The SOX-Plus lamp has almost entirely superseded the original SOX design which has been made obsolete.  In due course it is expected that SOX-Plus in turn will be superseded by the newer SOX-PSG types.

Metal halide systems remain the preferred technology for many commercial and industrial applications for sports lighting, athletic areas and warehousing. In many cases, metal halide lighting is the only practical lighting option.

Normally the failure of a lamp fails to illuminate when it is energized; however, on occasion, the lamp can fail violently or rupture. Metal halide lamps have been suspected as the ignition source in a number of fires and may increase the risk of fire.

Metal halide lamps are constructed with an outer bulb with an internal arc tube made of quartz. The arc tube operates under high pressure at very high temperatures (internal pressures of 70 – 90 psi and temperatures near 2000 F.)

The arc tube and outer bulb may unexpectedly rupture due to internal causes or external factors such as a system failure or misapplication. The possibility of lamp failure increases significantly as it approaches and exceeds its rated life. The failure rate with a rupture of the outer bulb is less than 1 in 100,000.

Classifications :
The S-type lamps can only operate in an open fixture when operated within 15° of verticle and provided the installation is not near people or flammabel or combustible materials.

The O-type lamps generally have an additional quartz shroud around the arc tube that can contain the arc tube fragments or reduce their momentum sufficiently that they will not break the outer glass bulb. Lamps with a protective shroud are frequently designated as MP-type metal halide lamps.

It should be noted that lamps that have a plastic safety coating cannot contain an arc tube rupture.

E-type lamps can only be used in suitably rated enclosed luminaries;
S-type lamps may be used in open luminaires if certain conditions are met;
O-type lamps may be used in open luminaires.

 
 
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